If you are planning to spend your Turkey holiday on the magnificent seacoasts of Aegean Region, you should give priority to Pergamon Ancient City as one of the uppermost ancient destinations to visit. You may take a real historical excursion among the splendid historical remains of the ancient city located in the district of Bergama of Izmir, the largest city of Aegean Region. First founded as the capital of Attalid dynasty, then became the capital of Kingdom of Pergamon, Pergamon has been the region’s capital during the Roman imperial period for a short period of time. Today a significant part of the artifacts of the ancient city that possessed ruins of countless structures from different eras are exhibited in European museums. Pergamon Ancient City has also been inscribed as the World Heritage by UNESCO in 2014.
The city is formed of three parts, Upper Acropolis, Lower Acropolis, and at foot of Acropolis. In the Pergamon Acropolis (Upper Acropolis) where the ruling population resided, the Sanctuary of Athena, the Hellenistic Theater with a seating capacity of 10,000, the Temple of Dionysus, the Library of Pergamum, the Sanctuary of Agora and the Royal Palace exist. The Great Altar of Pergamon, one of the most important artifacts of the city, has been taken to Germany in the second half of 19th century and is still exhibited in Pergamon Museum in Berlin. In the Lower Acropolis where structures accessible to public are located, there are various sizes of recreational facilities called Gymnasium where sports competitions are held. In addition to this, structures such as the Temple of Demeter, the Sanctuary of Asclepius are also located in this part of the city. At foot of Acropolis, where majority of the city population lived, houses with diversified architecture and the temple dedicated to the Egyptian god Serapis are the notable structures.
The city was founded as the capital of the Attalid dynasty in the 3rd century BC attesting its long history and became a substantial cultural, political and academic center in a short period of time. Pergamon was one of the most important cities in the Hellenistic period and came under the rule of Roman Empire in 133 BC, which then became the imperial capital of province of Asia. Many significant structures were built in the city during the Roman period; however, it started to lose its centric feature with the transfer of city center to Ephesus. Pergamon gradually became a middle-sized city with the separation of Roman Empire into West and East and with the commercial and political activities moving to north, Constantinopolis (Istanbul).
If you wish to visit Pergamon during your trip, first of all, you will have to arrive in Izmir by plane, bus or car. It is possible for you to arrive in this ancient city of Bergama district, located 77 kilometers away from Izmir city center, either by Izmir’s public transportation called ESHOT lines or by your car with a map in hand. The region where the ancient city is located has also a reputation for its streams, lakes, mountains and plains and offers a variety of options for you to savor the magnificent nature on top of your historical trip.